BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) durability, time to modification or cessation, has declined. The study objective was to determine whether kidney dysfunction is contributing to reduced durability. METHODS: This retrospective follow-up study of CNICS evaluated treatment-naive PLWH initiating ART between 2007 and 2014. Regimen modification was defined as cessation/modification of any part of the 3-drug ART regimen. We evaluated the role of kidney dysfunction in initial regimen modification as both a mediator and effect measure modifier. Associations of the variables with the ART modification were examined using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of 4515 PLWH included in the analysis, 1967 modified their ART. Of those receiving TDF-based ART (n = 3888), 1580 (41%) modified their regimen compared with 387 (62%) receiving other regimens. Overall, the median eGFR decreased by 5 mL/min/1.73 m (quartiles: first = -16, third = 0) from baseline to follow-up. Of the 128 patients with low baseline eGFR (<60 mL/min/1.73 m), the final eGFR remained low in 73% while it increased to above 60 mL/min/1.73 m in 27%. Of the 4387 with normal baseline eGFR, only 135 (3%) had a final eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m. Those with low eGFR at the baseline and/or final visits were more likely to modify ART than others (hazards ratio = 1.75, 95% confidence interval: 1.39 to 2.19, P < 0.001). Relative to other regimens, TDF-based ART was less likely to be modified when accounting for numerous clinical and demographic traits. CONCLUSIONS: For patients in our study initiated on ART, including TDF-based ART, in the last decade, kidney dysfunction is not a major factor leading to regimen modification.