Bone grafting has become an integral part of implant dentistry. To achieve a predictable long-term outcome for osseointegrated implants, a sufficient volume and quality of alveolar bone must be present at implant recipient sites. Resorption of the alveolar ridge and postsurgical or post-traumatic defects of the residual alveolar bone can prevent ideal placement of a dental implant. Thus, in many cases, alveolar bone grafting is the real challenge in implant reconstruction. This article will discuss the various techniques and graft materials for alveolar ridge reconstruction of the mandible. It also compares and contrasts these techniques by reviewing the current literature.