Hypertension is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Efforts to identify hypertension genes have focused on 3 approaches: mendelian disorders, candidate genes, and genome-wide scans. Thus far, these efforts have not identified genes that contribute substantively to overall blood pressure (BP) variation in the community. A 10-centiMorgan (cM) density genome-wide scan was performed in the largest families from 2 generations of Framingham Heart Study participants. Heritability and linkage for long-term mean systolic and diastolic BP phenotypes were analyzed by use of SOLAR software. Heritability estimates were based on BP measurements in 1593 families. Genotyping was performed on 1702 subjects from 332 large families, and BP data were available for 1585 (93%) genotyped subjects who contributed 12 588 longitudinal BP observations. The mean age was 47 years, and mean BP was 127/80 (systolic/diastolic) mm Hg. Long-term systolic and diastolic BP phenotypes had high heritability estimates, 0.57 and 0.56, respectively. For systolic BP, multipoint log-of-the-odds (LOD) scores >2.0 were located on chromosome 17 at 67 cM (LOD 4.7, P=0.0000016) and 94 cM (LOD 2.2). For diastolic BP, LOD scores >2.0 were identified on chromosome 17 (74 cM, LOD 2.1) and chromosome 18 (7 cM, LOD 2.1). Using a genome-wide scan, we found strong evidence for a BP quantitative trait locus on chromosome 17. Follow-up studies are warranted to identify the gene or genes in this quantitative trait locus that influence BP. Such knowledge could extend our understanding of the genetic basis of essential hypertension and have implications for the evaluation and treatment of patients with high BP.