The goal of diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics is to plan a course of treatment based on the initial condition of the patient's problem(s) (ie, a problem list) and the "end of treatment" goal determined by the patient (or parents) and the orthodontist. Accurate imaging is a central part of the diagnostic and treatment planning process and also important in monitoring and documenting the treatment progress and the final outcome. Diagnostic imaging has been a part of the orthodontic patient record for decades, which has normally included two-dimensional (2D) cephalometric imaging and tracings and panoramic imaging along with 2D photographs. Traditional 3D data has been confined to study models of the teeth (plaster and more recently digital). These data sets have not been coregistered into an accurate 3D representation of the patient's anatomy. Accurate diagnosis is the key to treatment planning and eventual treatment itself. It is essential to analyze accurate imaging data that represents the "anatomic truth" of the patient's real anatomy. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.