The formal organization of the Fellowship Advisory Committee, the fellows' research seminars, and other group activities have broadened greatly the subspecialty training process at the University of Florida and exposed it to peer scrutiny. Recent graduates of the fellowship program have been recruited by leading academic institutions or have been retained on the Florida faculty. This experience supports the concept that a department of pediatrics should strongly influence the training of pediatric subspecialists. Generally, the expense of subspecialty training will continue to increase, especially if the fellow is to learn basic clinical or laboratory research skills and not be overburdened with service obligations. Across the country, the number of fellowships being funded by outside sources is shrinking, and this is throwing an increased burden on the individual departments or their divisions. This trend should prompt department chairmen and medical school deans to allocate their residual resources as wisely as possible. The establishment at the University of Florida of the department Fellowship Advisory Committee with its cascade of effects, plus the establishment of fellows' research seminars and organized courses for fellows, represents one approach toward this goal.