Pediatric hematology and oncology patients represent a unique type of pediatric patient with complex medical problems and "high-tech" challenges. For this reason, these patients may provoke anxiety in health care practitioners. Treating children with cancer and blood diseases, such as leukemia, anemia, and bone marrow failure, should have a systematic approach to their care. This chapter serves as a guideline for these distinctive characteristics and provides a process for the evaluation and management of their health care considerations. We will especially focus on fever and neutropenia in oncology patients and make mention of transfusion of blood products. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.