Background IgA nephropathy (IgAN), the most common primary glomerulonephritis worldwide, has serious outcomes with end-stage renal disease developing in 30–50% of patients. The diagnosis requires renal biopsy. Due to its inherent risks, non-invasive approaches are needed. Methods We evaluated 91 Czech patients with biopsy-proven IgAN who were assessed at time of diagnosis for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), proteinuria, microscopic hematu-ria, and hypertension, and then followed prospectively. Serum samples collected at diagnosis were analyzed for galactose-deficient IgA1 (Gd-IgA1) using new native-IgA1 and established neuraminidase-treated-IgA1 tests, Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibodies, discriminant analysis and logistic regression model assessed correlations with renal function and Oxford classification (MEST score). Results Serum levels of native (P <0.005) and neuraminidase-treated (P <0.005) Gd-IgA1 were associated with the rate of eGFR decline. A higher relative degree of galactose deficiency in native serum IgA1 predicted a faster eGFR decline and poor renal survival (P <0.005). However, Gd-IgA1 has not differentiated patients with low vs. high baseline eGFR. Furthermore, patients with high baseline eGFR that was maintained during follow-up were characterized by low serum levels of Gd-IgA1-specific IgG autoantibodies (P = 0.003). Conclusions Including levels of native and neuraminidase-treated Gd-IgA1 and Gd-IgA1-specific autoantibodies at diagnosis may aid in the prognostication of disease progression in Czech patients with IgAN. Future tests will assess utility of these biomarkers in larger patients cohorts from geographically distinct areas.