Background. Aurothioglucose- (ATG-) mediated inhibition of thioredoxin reductase-1 (TXNRD1) improves alveolarization in experimental murine bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Glutathione (GSH) mediates susceptibility to neonatal and adult oxidative lung injury. We have previously shown that ATG attenuates hyperoxic lung injury and enhances glutathione- (GSH-) dependent antioxidant defenses in adult mice. Hypothesis. The present studies evaluated the effects of TXNRD1 inhibition on GSH-dependent antioxidant defenses in newborn mice in vivo and lung epithelia in vitro. Methods. Newborn mice received intraperitoneal ATG or saline prior to room air or 85% hyperoxia exposure. Glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL) catalytic (Gclc) and modifier (Gclm) mRNA levels, total GSH levels, total GSH peroxidase (GPx) activity, and Gpx2 expression were determined in lung homogenates. In vitro, murine transformed club cells (mtCCs) were treated with the TXNRD1 inhibitor auranofin (AFN) or vehicle in the presence or absence of the GCL inhibitor buthionine sulfoximine (BSO). Results. In vivo, ATG enhanced hyperoxia-induced increases in Gclc mRNA levels, total GSH contents, and GPx activity. In vitro, AFN increased Gclm mRNA levels, intracellular and extracellular GSH levels, and GPx activity. BSO prevented AFN-induced increases in GSH levels. Conclusions. Our data are consistent with a model in which TXNRD1 inhibition augments hyperoxia-induced GSH-dependent antioxidant responses in neonatal mice. Discrepancies between in vivo and in vitro results highlight the need for methodologies that permit accurate assessments of the GSH system at the single-cell level.