© 2019, American Physiological Society. All rights reserved. Older adults undergoing age-related decrements in muscle health can benefit substantially from resistance exercise training, a potent stimulus for whole muscle and myofiber hypertrophy, neuromuscular performance gains, and improved functional mobility. With the use of advancing technologies, research continues to elucidate the mechanisms of and heterogeneity in adaptations to resistance exercise training beyond differences in exercise prescription. This review highlights the current knowledge in these areas and emphasizes knowledge gaps that require future attention of the field.