BACKGROUND: Asthma is a common cause of pediatric hospitalization. Nonadherence to asthma medications is associated with worse outcomes; however, there is a paucity of data regarding posthospitalization prescription filling and hospital reuse. Our objective was to identify patients at risk for hospital reuse after being hospitalized for asthma. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients with asthma who were discharged from a children's hospital in which we use Medicaid claims data to evaluate prescription fills within 30 days and 12 months. Chart reviews were used for demographics, chronic asthma severity, admission severity, and hospital reuse. t and χ2 tests were performed for continuous and categorical variables. A generalized linear mixed model was fitted to predict the odds of hospital reuse, which was defined as requiring an emergency department visit or rehospitalization. Survival analysis using log-rank testing was used for modeling the time to hospital reuse. RESULTS: Fifty-four percent of patients discharged with asthma had hospital reuse within 1 year of discharge. There was no association between hospital reuse and prescription filling for systemic steroids (odds ratio [OR] 1.30; confidence interval [CI]: 0.85-2.00; P = .21) or controller medications (OR 1.5; CI: 0.92-2.52; P = .10). There was a higher number of controller and systemic steroid prescription fills over 12 months for patients with hospital reuse. The factors associated with greater odds of hospital reuse were severity of chronic asthma diagnosis (P = .03) as well as African American race (OR 1.92; CI: 1.17-3.13; P = .01). CONCLUSIONS: For Medicaid-insured patients discharged with asthma, worse chronic asthma severity and African American race were associated with greater odds of hospital reuse. Decreased prescription filling was not associated with greater odds of hospital reuse.