© 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Background:Among women in the United States, non-Latina black women in the South have disproportionately high rates of new HIV infections but low use of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Effective strategies to identify factors associated with PrEP eligibility could facilitate improved screening, offering, and uptake of PrEP among US women at risk of HIV.Setting and methods:We applied 2014 CDC criteria for PrEP use to at-risk HIV-negative women enrolled in the Southern US sites (Atlanta, Chapel Hill, Birmingham/Jackson, Miami) of the Women's Interagency HIV Study from 2014 to 2015 to estimate PrEP eligibility and assess PrEP knowledge and acceptability. Factors associated with PrEP eligibility were assessed using multivariable models.Results:Among 225 women, 72 (32%) were PrEP-eligible; the most common PrEP indicator was condomless sex. The majority of PrEP-eligible women (88%) reported willingness to consider PrEP. Only 24 (11%) PrEP-eligible women had previously heard of PrEP, and only 1 reported previous use. Education level less than high school [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22 to 5.37], history of sexual violence (aOR 4.52; 95% CI: 1.52 to 17.76), and medium to high self-perception of HIV risk (aOR 6.76; 95% CI: 3.26 to 14.05) were significantly associated with PrEP eligibility in adjusted models.Conclusions:Extremely low PrEP awareness and use despite a high proportion of eligibility and acceptability signify a critical need to enhance PrEP education and delivery for women in this region. Supplementing CDC eligibility criteria with questions about history of sexual violence and HIV risk self-assessment may enhance PrEP screening and uptake among US women.