A longitudinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy study investigating effects of risperidone in the anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus in schizophrenia

Academic Article


  • Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy is a popular approach to probe brain chemistry in schizophrenia (SZ), but no consensus exists as to the extent of alterations. This may be attributable to differential effects of populations studied, brain regions examined, or antipsychotic medication effects. Here, we measured neurometabolites in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and hippocampus, two structurally dissimilar brain regions implicated in the SZ pathophysiology. We enrolled 61 SZ with the goal to scan them before and after six weeks of treatment with risperidone. We also scanned 31 matched healthy controls twice, six weeks apart. Using mixed effect repeated measures linear models to examine the effect of group and time on metabolite levels in each voxel, we report an increase in hippocampal glutamate + glutamine (Glx) in SZ compared to controls (p = 0.043), but no effect of antipsychotic medication (p = 0.330). In the ACC, we did not find metabolite alterations or antipsychotic medication related changes after six weeks of treatment with risperidone. The coefficients for the discriminant function (differentiating SZ from HC) in the ACC were greatest for NAA (−0.83), and in the hippocampus for Glx (0.76), the same metabolites were associated with greater treatment response in patients at trend level. Taken together, our data extends the existing literature by demonstrating regionally distinct metabolite alterations in the same patient group and suggests that antipsychotic medications may have limited effects on metabolite levels in these regions.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Kraguljac NV; Morgan CJ; Reid MA; White DM; Jindal RD; Sivaraman S; Martinak BK; Lahti AC
  • Start Page

  • 239
  • End Page

  • 244
  • Volume

  • 210