© The Author(s) 2019. Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is a parasitic protozoan responsible for the sexually transmitted infection trichomoniasis. Trichomonas vaginalis virus (TVV) is a nonsegmented, 4.5–5 kbp, double-stranded RNA virus, from the Totiviridae family, which inhabits TV. A capsid protein consisting of 120 subunits is covered in channels aiding in RNA release. TVV is closely associated with the Golgi complex and is transmitted vertically. TVV has four subspecies, TVV1, TVV2, TVV3, and TVV4. The clinical significance of TVV and its effect on the pathogenicity of TV is not well known. We performed a systematic review of the literature on TVV to better understand its clinical significance and its role in the pathogenesis of TV.