Background Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) is a live, viral vaccine under advanced development as a non-replicating smallpox vaccine. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial was conducted to demonstrate the humoral immunogenic equivalence of three consecutively manufactured MVA production lots, and to confirm the safety and tolerability of MVA focusing on cardiac readouts. Methods The trial was conducted at 34 sites in the US. Vaccinia-naïve adults aged 18-40 years were randomly allocated to one of four groups using a 1:1:1:1 randomization scheme. Subjects received either two MVA injections from three consecutive lots (Groups 1-3), or two placebo injections (Group 4), four weeks apart. Everyone except personnel involved in vaccine handling and administration was blinded to treatment. Safety assessment focused on cardiac monitoring throughout the trial. Vaccinia-specific antibody titers were measured using a Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test (PRNT) and an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The primary immunogenicity endpoint was Geometric Mean Titers (GMTs) after two MVA vaccinations measured by PRNT at trial visit 4. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01144637. Results Between March 2013 and May 2014, 4005 subjects were enrolled and received at least one injection of MVA (n = 3003) or placebo (n = 1002). The three MVA lots induced equivalent antibody titers two weeks after the second vaccination, with seroconversion rates of 998% (PRNT) and 997% (ELISA). Overall, 180 (60%) subjects receiving MVA and 29 (29%) subjects in the placebo group reported at least one unsolicited Adverse Event (AE) that was considered trial-related. Vaccination was well tolerated without significant safety concerns, particularly regarding cardiac assessment. Conclusions The neutralizing and total antibody titers induced by each of the three lots were equivalent. No significant safety concerns emerged in this healthy trial population, especially regarding cardiac safety, thus confirming the excellent safety and tolerability profile of MVA.