© 2007 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Superficial and mucosal fungal infections are among the most common infections in man, and are caused by a variety of dermatophytes, Candida spp., and less commonly, other fungi. These infections occur in all age groups and are recognized among both normal and immunocompromised hosts. Because of the high frequency of these infections, most diagnoses are based on clinical grounds alone; as such, misdiagnosis is not uncommon. A specific diagnosis for any of these infections require histopathologic, cytologic, and/or culture confirmation.