Purpose. We investigated the mammographic, sonographic, and pathologic findings in metaplastic carcinoma of the breast. Methods. The mammographic (n = 16) and sonographic (n = 11) findings in 16 patients with metaplastic carcinoma of the breast were analyzed retrospectively along with pathologic findings. Whenever possible, results of preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy and immunohistochemical studies were obtained. Results. All patients presented with a palpable breast mass. The mean size of the lesions at pathologic examination was 4.2 cm. On mammography, 15 patients had a mass (1 patient had 2 masses), and 1 patient had only clustered microcalcifications without an associated mass. The mean longest diameter of the 16 masses on mammography was 4.6 cm. Eleven lesions (69%) were round to ovoid in shape, 13 lesions (81%) showed ill-defined or obscured margins, and 10 lesions (63%) showed associated architectural distortion. On sonography, 6 (55%) of 11 lesions were round to ovoid, 9 lesions (82%) had well-defined margins, and 6 lesions (55%) showed complex echogenicity with solid and cystic components. At pathologic examination, 4 of these 6 lesions showed hemorrhagic or cystic necrosis. Axillary lymph nodes were positive in 6 (40%) of 15 patients in whom axillary node dissection was performed. Conclusions. Metaplastic carcinoma of the breast manifests as a rapidly growing, mammographically ill- defined round mass with associated architectural distortion on mammograms. Complex echogenicity with solid and cystic components may be seen sonographically and is related to hemorrhagic or cystic necrosis seen pathologically. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Inc.