Exosomal particular size of 30-100. nm matches the size criterion for nanoparticles, and opens up the possibility of using exosomes as a nanoparticle drug carrier. More importantly, exosomes released from different types of host cells have different biological effects and targeting specificities. Therefore, depending on the therapeutic goal, different types of exosomes can be combined with specific drugs and serve as carriers so that personalized medicine needs are met. In addition, exosomes do not appear to have cytotoxicity. Based on the perceived advantages of exosomes, they may well serve as a next generation drug delivery mechanism that combines nanoparticle size with a non-cytotoxic effect, target specificity, and a high drug carrying capacity, to make them useful in the treatment of a variety of diseases. This review will focus on exosomes as a biological nanoparticle drug carrier with emphasis on their immune-regulatory activities. © 2012.