Plasticity-related gene 3 (LPPR1) and age at diagnosis of Parkinson disease.

Academic Article


  • OBJECTIVE: To identify modifiers of age at diagnosis of Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS: Genome-wide association study (GWAS) included 1,950 individuals with PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC) study. Replication was conducted in the Parkinson's, Genes and Environment study, including 209 prevalent (PAGEP) and 517 incident (PAGEI) PD cases. Cox regression was used to test association with age at diagnosis. Individuals without neurologic disease were used to rule out confounding. Gene-level analysis and functional annotation were conducted using Functional Mapping and Annotation of GWAS platform (FUMA). RESULTS: The GWAS revealed 2 linked but seemingly independent association signals that mapped to LPPR1 on chromosome 9. LPPR1 was significant in gene-based analysis (p = 1E-8). The top signal (rs17763929, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.88, p = 5E-8) replicated in PAGEP (HR = 1.87, p = 0.01) but not in PAGEI. The second signal (rs73656147) was robust with no evidence of heterogeneity (HR = 1.95, p = 3E-6 in NGRC; HR = 2.14, p = 1E-3 in PAGEP + PAGEI, and HR = 2.00, p = 9E-9 in meta-analysis of NGRC + PAGEP + PAGEI). The associations were with age at diagnosis, not confounded by age in patients or in the general population. The PD-associated regions included variants with Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion (CADD) scores = 10-19 (top 1%-10% most deleterious mutations in the genome), a missense with predicted destabilizing effect on LPPR1, an expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) for GRIN3A (false discovery rate [FDR] = 4E-4), and variants that overlap with enhancers in LPPR1 and interact with promoters of LPPR1 and 9 other brain-expressed genes (Hi-C FDR < 1E-6). CONCLUSIONS: Through association with age at diagnosis, we uncovered LPPR1 as a modifier gene for PD. LPPR1 expression promotes neuronal regeneration after injury in animal models. Present data provide a strong foundation for mechanistic studies to test LPPR1 as a driver of response to damage and a therapeutic target for enhancing neuroregeneration and slowing disease progression.
  • Authors

    Published In

  • Neurology Genetics  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Wallen ZD; Chen H; Hill-Burns EM; Factor SA; Zabetian CP; Payami H
  • Start Page

  • e271
  • Volume

  • 4
  • Issue

  • 5