MicroRNA (miRNA) has emerged rapidly as a major new direction in many fields of research including kidney and blood pressure research. A mammalian genome encodes several hundred miRNAs. These miRNAs potentially regulate the expression of thousands of proteins. miRNA expression profiles differ substantially between the kidney and other organs as well as between kidney regions. miRNAs may be functionally important in models of diabetic nephropathy, podocyte development, and polycystic disease. miRNAs may be involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure, including possible involvement in genetic elements of hypertension. Studies of miRNAs could generate diagnostic biomarkers for kidney disease and new mechanistic insights into the complex regulatory networks underlying kidney disease and hypertension. Further progress in the understanding of miRNA biogenesis and action and technical improvements for target identification and miRNA manipulation will be important for studying miRNAs in renal function and blood pressure regulation. Copyright © 2009 the American Physiological Society.