Cell therapy in cardiology is mainly targetted towards the indication of postischemic heart failure, and aims at restricting remodeling, at substituting the scar tissue for a more plastic one, and/or at improving local angiogenesis and contractility. The present developments of this therapeutical approach are based on the very promising results observed along preclinical and phase I clinical studies, of which the mechanisms of action, however, are still poorly elucidated. While some cell types did not yet jumped over the step of fundamental research, because of lack of accessibility, insufficient characterisation and inadequate production, some cell types have reached the stage of preclinical developments, and finally myoblasts and medullar cells (either selected or not) have been subjected to phase II clinical trials. These trials have documented the good technical feasibility and tolerance of the approaches, but only provided limited evidence of functional benefits, due to the stammering aspects of the field. Indeed, several research ways have now to be explored to improve the survival and distribution of grafted cells. These studies should investigate the use of new cell types along with biomaterials, the optimisation of cell doses, and the development of delivery and imagery techniques.