Cellular cardiomyoplasty, or the transplantation of myogenic cells into the myocardial tissues, could emerge as a therapeutic alternative in patients with cardiac failure. It depends on several procedures: implantation of cell types, syngenic embryonic cardiomycocytes, allogenic and autogenic cardiac muscle cells. These cells came into contact with host cardiomyocytes and could contract in a synchronous fashion. Experimental data suggests that this technique could improve global left ventricular function in the post- infarction period or in dilated cardiomyopathy even though the precise mechanism of this improvement is not fully understood. Many difficulties remain, the cell types have an oncogenic potential; syngenic foetal cells are weakly immunogenic but their use is limited by ethical and problems of supply. Therefore, auto-transplantation either of cardiomycocytes obtained by endomyocardial biopsy or of adult skeletal muscle, could be a potential clinical option.