Despite the improvement in revascularisation techniques, coronary artery disease remains the principal aetiology of cardiac failure in developed countries. The therapeutic management of cardiac failure has been improved over recent years, yet cardiac failure is still associated with significant morbidity and mortality. As cardiac transplantation lacks donors, techniques that allow myocardial regeneration represent an attractive alternative. To date, several types of cells are under study and are suitable for implantation into infarcted myocardium (myoblasts, medullary stem cells...). Following good preclinical study results, the first human cell therapy trials, using the intramyocardial route, have begun, in the course of aorto-coronary bypass surgery in patients with chronic ischaemic cardiopathy and little altered left ventricular function, and then in those with ventricular dysfunction. Different modes of administration of these cell therapy products are under study and could be envisaged in clinical situations such as just after infarction in order to improve ventricular remodelling with an intracoronary injection technique. As for every new treatment, there are numerous problems to resolve, from understanding the relevant mechanisms of cellular transplantation, to the secondary effects that it could entail. Nevertheless, cardiac cellular transplantation is expanding rapidly and with the evolution of techniques it allows a glimpse of a new field of treatment for cardiac failure.