The objective of cardiac cell therapy is to restore cardiac function in infarct zones. This therapy has been tested for two primary diagnoses: chronic heart failure and acute myocardial infarction. Clinical trials have showed that cardiac cell therapy is safe and that its results in terms of efficacy appear encouraging. Three challenges remain to obtain optimal therapeutic benefits: prevent the migration of these cells, increase their survival, and improve their integration into the recipient myocardium. © 2007 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.