Intramyocardial transplantation of skeletal myoblasts augments postinfarction cardiac function. However, poor survival of injected cells limits this therapy. It is hypothesized that implantation of myoblast-based scaffolds would result in greater cell survival. Rat skeletal myoblasts were seeded on highly porous polyurethane (PU) scaffolds (7.5 × 7.5 × 2.0 mm). The effect of several scaffold pretreatments, initial cell densities, and culture periods was tested by DNA-based cell count and viability assessment. Seeded PU scaffolds were implanted on infarcted hearts and immunohistology was performed 4 weeks later. Precoating with laminin allowed the most favorable cell attachment. An initial inoculation with 5 × 106 cells followed by a 15-day culture period resulted in optimal myoblast proliferation. Four weeks after their implantation in rats, numerous myoblasts were found throughout the seeded patches although no sign of differentiation could be observed. This myoblast seeding technique on PU allows transfer of a large number of living myoblasts to a damaged myocardium. © 2007, Copyright the Authors.