© The Author(s) 2017/2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved. OBJECTIVES: Surgical mortality and long-term outcomes are important considerations when determining strategies for multiple reoperations on the aortic valve (AV). With the rise of percutaneous valve-in-valve, we sought to evaluate the current outcomes of conventional surgery for AV reoperation, focusing first on the effect of the number of previous AV interventions with a subsequent analysis of the risk factors for adverse outcomes. METHODS: From January 2007 to December 2016, 316 consecutive patients underwent an open redo operation (replacement) on their AV at a single centre. It was the first AV reintervention in 263 patients (Group 1), second in 42 patients (Group 2) and third or more in 11 patients (Group 3). RESULTS: There were 230 men and 86 women, with a median age of 58 (Q1-Q3: 46-70) years. Structural valve deterioration (SVD) of the bioprosthesis (n = 136, 44%), endocarditis (n = 57, 18%) and prosthetic valve dehiscence (n = 41, 13%) were the most common reasons for reintervention. Overall, in-hospital mortality was 7.3%: 7.2% in Group 1, 4.76% in Group 2 and 18.2% in Group 3 (P = 0.233) and ranged from 3.7% for SVD to 14.0% when endocarditis was the reason for reintervention. Higher preoperative New York Heart Association (NYHA) class (III/IV) [odds ratio (OR) 15.9, P = 0.011], injury during re-entry (OR 16.9, P = 0.015), endocarditis (OR 3.7, P = 0.038) and concomitant mitral valve replacement (OR 5.6, P = 0.006) were independent risk factors for in-hospital mortality. Survival at 8 years was 79.0 ± 3.0% for the entire cohort and 88.4 ± 3.2% for re-replacement after SVD. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple AV reoperations carry an acceptable risk of early postoperative mortality, particularly for isolated valve replacements of SVD.