Intramyocardial skeletal muscle transplantation has been shown experimentally to improve heart function after infarction. We report success with this procedure in a patient with severe ischaemic heart failure. We implanted autologous skeletal myoblasts into the postinfarction scar during coronary artery bypass grafting of remote myocardial areas. 5 months later, there was evidence of contraction and viability in the grafted scar on echocardiography and positron emission tomography. Although this result is encouraging, it requires validation by additional studies.