One of the most unexpected discoveries in MHC genetics came from studies dealing with the teleost MHC. Initially discovered in zebrafish, the MHC class I and II regions of all bony fish are not linked. Previous segregation analysis in trout suggested that the class I and II regions reside on completely different chromosomes. To learn more about MHC genomics in trout, we have isolated BAC clones harboring class Ia and Ib loci, a single BAC clone containing an MH class II gene (DAB), as well as BAC clones containing the ABCB2 gene. Upon PCR and sequence confirmation, BAC clones were labeled and used as probes for in situ hybridization on rainbow trout metaphase chromosomes for determination of the physical locations of the trout MH regions. Finally, SNPs, RFLPs, and microsatellites found within the BAC clones allowed for these regions to be assigned to specific linkage groups on the OSU x Hotcreek (HC) and OSU x Arlee (ARL) genetic linkage maps. Our data demonstrate that the trout MH regions are located on at least four different chromosomes and the corresponding linkage groups, while also providing direct evidence for the partial duplication of the MH class I region in trout.