Genetic basis of human breast cancer metastasis

Academic Article


  • Once cancer cells have spread and formed secondary masses, breast cancers are largely incurable even with state-of-the-art medicine. To improve diagnosis and therapy, better markers are needed to distinguish cells which have a high probability for causing clinically relevant, macroscopic metastases. In this review, we summarize the several genes that regulate breast cancer metastasis. Two categories of genes are presented - metastasis activator (ras, MEK1, mta1, proteinases, adhesion molecules, chemoattractants/receptors, autotaxin, PKC, S100A4, RhoC, osteopontin) and metastasis suppressor (Nm23, E-cadherin, TIMPs, KiSS1, Kai1, Maspin, MKK4, BRMS1). While the mechanisms of action for most of these genes are not fully elucidated, some clues are emerging and are presented. © 2002 Plenum Publishing Corporation.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Debies MT; Welch DR
  • Start Page

  • 441
  • End Page

  • 451
  • Volume

  • 6
  • Issue

  • 4