© 2018 American Physiological Society. Aller-gic asthma is a major cause of morbidity in both pediatric and adult patients. Recent research has highlighted the role of hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix glycosaminoglycan, in asthma pathogenesis. Experimental allergic airway inflammation and clinical asthma are associated with an increase of shorter fragments of HA (sHA), which complex with inter-α-inhibitor heavy chains (HCs) and induce inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Importantly, the effects of sHA can be antagonized by the physiological counterpart high molecular weight HA (HMWHA). We used a mouse model of house dust mite-induced allergic airway inflammation and demonstrated that instilled HMWHA ameliorated allergic airway inflammation and AHR, even when given after the establishment of allergic sensitization and after challenge exposures. Furthermore, instilled HMWHA reduced the development of HA-HC complexes and the activation of Rho-associated, coiled-coil containing protein kinase 2. We conclude that airway application of HMWHA is a potential treatment for allergic airway inflammation.