© 2018, The Author(s). Microbial signals have been linked to autoantibody induction. Recently, we found that purified anti-CD4 autoantibodies from the plasma of chronic HIV-1-infected patients under viral-suppressed antiretroviral therapy (ART) play a pathologic role in poor CD4+ T cell recovery. The purpose of the study was to investigate the association of systemic microbiome and anti-CD4 autoantibody production in HIV. Plasma microbiome from 12 healthy controls and 22 HIV-infected subjects under viral-suppressed ART were analyzed by MiSeq sequencing. Plasma level of autoantibodies and microbial translocation (LPS, total bacterial 16S rDNA, soluble CD14, and LPS binding protein) were analyzed by ELISA, limulus amebocyte assay, and qPCR. We found that plasma level of anti-CD4 IgGs but not anti-CD8 IgGs was increased in HIV+ subjects compared to healthy controls. HIV+ subjects with plasma anti-CD4 IgG > 50 ng/mL (high) had reduced microbial diversity compared to HIV+ subjects with anti-CD4 IgG ≤ 50 ng/mL (low). Moreover, plasma anti-CD4 IgG level was associated with elevated microbial translocation and reduced microbial diversity in HIV+ subjects. The Alphaproteobacteria class was significantly enriched in HIV+ subjects with low anti-CD4 IgG compared to patients with high anti-CD4 IgG even after controlling for false discovery rate (FDR). The microbial components were different from the phylum to genus level in HIV+ subjects with high anti-CD4 IgGs compared to the other two groups, but these differences were not significant after controlling for FDR. These results suggest that systemic microbial translocation and microbiome may associate with anti-CD4 autoantibody production in ART-treated HIV disease.