© Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons. Pediatric kidney transplant recipients experience a high-risk age window of increased graft loss during late adolescence and early adulthood that has been attributed primarily to sociobehavioral mechanisms such as nonadherence. An examination of how this age window affects recipients of other organs may inform the extent to which sociobehavioral mechanisms are to blame or whether kidney-specific biologic mechanisms may also exist. Graft loss risk across current recipient age was compared between pediatric kidney (n = 17,446), liver (n = 12,161) and simultaneous liver-kidney (n = 224) transplants using piecewise-constant hazard rate models. Kidney graft loss during late adolescence and early adulthood (ages 17-24 years) was significantly greater than during ages <17 (aHR = 1.79, 95%CI = 1.69-1.90, p < 0.001) and ages >24 (aHR = 1.11, 95%CI = 1.03-1.20, p = 0.005). In contrast, liver graft loss during ages 17-24 was no different than during ages <17 (aHR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.92-1.16, p = 0.6) or ages >24 (aHR = 1.18, 95%CI = 0.98-1.42, p = 0.1). In simultaneous liver-kidney recipients, a trend towards increased kidney compared to liver graft loss was observed during ages 17-24 years. Late adolescence and early adulthood are less detrimental to pediatric liver grafts compared to kidney grafts, suggesting that sociobehavioral mechanisms alone may be insufficient to create the high-risk age window and that additional biologic mechanisms may also be required.