Health-compromised drug-dependent patients require specialized treatment that addresses both drug use and health risks. This preliminary study examines the efficacy of a contingency management procedure (shaping) on decreasing cocaine use and increasing compliance with the prescribed treatment regimens in two health-compromised cocainedependent populations: (i) tuberculin (TB) exposed patients (n = 5) (ii) pregnant women (n = 7). A multiple-baseline across-subjects design was used. There were no contingencies on cocaine use during baseline. During the contingent phase, patients received a monetary reinforcer for (a) successive decreases in the quantity of cocaine and (b) cocaine-free samples. They received a weekly reinforcer if all samples per week met criteria for (a) or (b). During the contingent phase, there was a significant decrease in cocaine metabolite levels and an increase in cocaine-free samples in both populations, with a more robust effect in the TB-exposed group. There was an increase in compliance with prenatal visits among the pregnant women during the contingent phase. Implications for health care are discussed. © 1995.