This preliminary study examined differences between cocaine-dependent pregnant women who received "baseline" drug treatment (N = 13) and those requiring additional "intensive" treatment (N = 9). Baseline drug treatment consisted of weekly individual counseling sessions. Intensive treatment, in the form of contingency management procedures, was added for patients who showed no reduction in cocaine use during the first 4 weeks of treatment. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of demographic and pregnancy characteristics or history of cocaine use. Significantly more patients in the baseline treatment group were cocaine-free at intake and had a higher rate of compliance with scheduled prenatal clinical visits. These findings may indicate a decision to cease cocaine use prior to entering treatment, and a high degree of motivation to remain drug-free. Despite the small sample size, the finding that a substantial proportion of cocaine- dependent pregnant women remain cocaine-free during treatment is encouraging. © 1994.