Background: When surgery is indicated for hallux rigidus, toe arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to arthrodesis for patients who wish to preserve toe range of motion. Our study investigated midterm outcomes of first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) arthroplasty in an effort to discern whether or not partial or total joint replacement confers benefit in these patients. Methods: A systematic review of MTPJ arthroplasty was performed for the years 2000 to 2017. A Forest plot was created comparing preoperative and postoperative American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Score (AOFAS), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and range of motion (ROM) results for both hemitoe and total-toe arthroplasty. Statistical analysis was performed. Results: Mean postoperative AOFAS scores in patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty improved by 50.7 points (95% CI = 48.5, 52.8), whereas the mean AOFAS score improvement in total joint arthroplasty patients was 40.6 points (95% CI = 38.5, 42.8). VAS outcomes were comparable. Mean postoperative MTPJ ROM improved by 43.0° (95% CI = 39.3°, 46.6°) in hemitoe patients, which exceeded the mean ROM improvement of 32.5° (95% CI = 29.9°, 35.1°) found in total joint arthroplasty cases. A meta-analysis revealed no significant difference. Conclusion: Hemisurface implants in MTPJ arthroplasty may improve postoperative AOFAS and ROM results to a greater extent than total-toe devices. Level of Evidence: Level IV: Systematic review.