Uracil-DNA glycosylase releases free uracil from DNA and initiates base excision repair for removal of this potentially mutagenic DNA lesion. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, human uracil-DNA glycosylase encoded by the UNG gene (UNG) was found to interact with the C-terminal part of the 34-kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA2). No interaction with RPA4 (a homolog of RPA2), RPA1, or RPA3 was observed. A sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with trimeric RPA and the two-hybrid system both demonstrated that the interaction depends on a region in UNG localized between amino acids 28 and 79 in the open reading frame. In this part of UNG a 23-amino acid sequence has a significant homology to the RPA2-binding region of XPA, a protein involved in damage recognition in nucleotide excision repair. Trimeric RPA did not enhance the activity of UNG in vitro on single- or double-stranded DNA. A part of the N-terminal region of UNG corresponding in size to the complete presequence was efficiently removed by proteinase K, leaving the proteinase K-resistant compact catalytic domain intact and fully active. These results indicate that the N-terminal part constitutes a separate structural domain required for RPA binding and suggest a possible function for RPA in base excision repair.