Online discussions enabled preK-12 teachers (n = 125) from five nations (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, and the United States) to share their perspectives of culture and citizenship and the intersections of those concepts. Discussion moved between elements of personal and others' theory into effects of theory on practice. Teachers identified culture and citizenship as multilayered concepts evolving to meet issues present in the early 21st century. Social studies teaching practice was thought to be affected by individual definitions of these concepts and by definitions held by influential groups in society. Transformative teaching is needed to assist students in developing their identities as citizens in a world in which the concepts of culture and citizenship are shifting.