© 2018 by the authors. Exosomes are nanosized membrane microvesicles (30-100 nm) that have the capability to communicate intercellularly and transport cell components (i.e., miRNA, mRNA, proteins and DNA). Exosomes are found in nearly every cell type (i.e., mast cells, dendritic, tumor, and macrophages). There have been many studies that have shown the importance of exosome function as well as their unique packaging and targeting abilities. These characteristics make exosomes ideal candidates to act as biomarkers and therapeutics for disease. We will discuss the biogenesis, composition, and relationship of exosomes with non-viral microbial infections including gram-negative bacteria, gram-positive bacteria, Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi.