© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) comprises a group of heterogeneous diseases further divided into various categories based on shared clinical presentation, laboratory markers, and disease prognosis. Extra-articular complications include uveitis and growth abnormalities. Disease course and prognosis vary with respect to each JIA category and subsequently guide respective treatment. Over the past few decades, considerable treatment advances have significantly reduced the morbidity associated with childhood arthritis. Nevertheless, the treatments are not curative; many children continue to have active disease into adulthood. Emphasis is placed on the initiation of early aggressive therapy in hopes of delaying disease progression and inducing remission.