Background: The literature conflicts regarding dental caries risk in cystic fibrosis (CF) relative to controls. Methods: Prospective, observational study of age-related heterogeneity in caries rates and potential risk factors in individuals with CF ages 6-20 at a single clinic in Washington state (N=85). Caries rates for enrolled CF participants and historical controls from NHANES were compared using cubic spline regression models. Generalized linear regression models identified correlates of age and caries in CF. Results: Children ages 6-9 with CF had significantly lower caries than controls (Holm's P<0.05). There was no difference for ages 10-20 by CF status (Holm's P>0.05). Various biological/intraoral, medical, and behavioral factors were associated with caries and age in CF. Conclusions: Younger children with CF may be protected from caries, but there is apparent loss of protection in early adolescence associated with multiple risk factors. Additional studies are needed to confirm these findings.