© 2018, L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland. Xenotransplantation is an attractive solution to the problem of allograft shortage. However, transplants across discordant species barriers are subject to vigorous immunologic and pathobiologic hurdles, some of which might be overcome with the induction of immunologic tolerance. Several strategies have been designed to induce tolerance to a xenograft at both the central (including induction of mixed chimerism and thymic transplantation) and peripheral (including adoptive transfer of regulatory cells and blocking T cell costimulation) levels. Currently, xenograft tolerance has been well-established in rodent models, but these protocols have not yet achieved similar success in nonhuman primates. This review will discuss the major barriers that impede the establishment of immunological tolerance across xenogeneic barriers and the potential solution to these challenges, and provide a perspective on the future of the development of novel tolerance-inducing strategies.