Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease occur commonly and may overlap among older adults. Smoking, air pollution, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are the main risk factors. The treatment of these diseases in older adults does not differ from the available guidelines but may be complicated by the presence of comorbidities. Smoking cessation is essential for smokers, and pulmonary rehabilitation must be considered regardless of the age of the patient. © 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology.