Phorbol ester- and growth factor-induced growth hormone (GH) receptor proteolysis and GH-binding protein shedding: Relationship to GH receptor down-regulation

Academic Article


  • GH signals by interacting with GH receptor (GHR). A substantial fraction of circulating GH complexes with GH-binding protein (GHBP), which corresponds to the GHR extracellular domain. GHBP is generated by 1) alternative splicing of a common GHR precursor messenger RNA to encode secreted GHBP (the source of the vast majority of GHBP in rodents); and 2) proteolysis of the cell-associated GHR with shedding of GHBP (a mechanism operative in rabbits and humans). We previously observed that phorbol ester (PMA)-induced activation of protein kinase C (PKC) causes metalloprotease-mediated GHR proteolysis and GHBP shedding in human IM-9 lymphocytes. We now demonstrate that PMA-induced hydroxamate (IC3)inhibitable GHR proteolysis and GHBP shedding were also detected in murine 3T3-F442A and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing rabbit GHR (rbGHR), although the degree of GHBP shedding was much smaller for murine GHR than for rabbit or human GHRs. PMA-induced GHR proteolysis in 3T3-F442A. 3T3-L1, and CHO-rbGHR cells was significantly reduced by pretreatment with mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1 inhibitors, suggesting involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in regulating this PKC-dependent effect. In contrast, GHR proteolysis promoted by N-ethylmaleimide, although inhibited by IC3, was unaffected by inhibition of either PKC or mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase 1. Thus, different pathways leading to metalloprotease-mediated receptor proteolysis are accessed by PMA vs. N-ethylmaleimide. To determine whether other, possibly more physiologically relevant, stimuli induce GHR proteolysis, we tested effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and serum. Treatment of serum-deprived cells with PDGF (in 3T3-F442A cells) or serum (in 3T3-F442A and CHO-rbGHR cells) promoted GHR proteolysis, which was inhibited by IC3. Interestingly, PMA-, PDGF-, and serum-induced GHR proteolysis was associated with substantial decreases in GH-induced activation of Janus kinase-2, which were also prevented by IC3. These findings suggest that inducible metalloprotease-mediated GHR proteolysis constitutes an important mechanism of receptor down-regulation and modulation of GH signaling.
  • Published In

  • Endocrinology  Journal
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Guan R; Zhang Y; Jiang J; Baumann CA; Black RA; Baumann G; Frank SJ
  • Start Page

  • 1137
  • End Page

  • 1147
  • Volume

  • 142
  • Issue

  • 3