The purpose of this pilot study was to compare the relative efficacy of a manualized family psychoeducational intervention versus treatment as usual in enhancing disease knowledge, and improving the psychological and psychosocial functioning of youth with SCD and their primary caregivers. Thirty-nine (39) 7-16 year old males and females with SCD were randomly assigned to participate in the 6-session experimental intervention (n=20) or the treatment as usual control condition (n=19). Each youth with SCD and primary caregiver completed measures assessing key constructs at pre- and post- intervention, as well as at 6-month follow-up for those in the experimental condition. Findings revealed that the family psychoeducational intervention yielded more improvements in child and primary caregiver disease knowledge than did the treatment as usual group and the children in the experimental group maintained their disease knowledge at 6-month follow-up. No additional findings evidenced statistical significance. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.