Purpose: Arteriovenous fistula non-maturation because of a peri-anastomotic venous stenosis is currently a huge clinical problem for which there are no effective therapies. Methods: In an attempt to further define the cellular pathways involved in this process we have assessed the pattern and intensity of macrophage infiltration at different time points in a pig model of AVF stenosis. Results: Our results demonstrate an early and eccentric pattern of macrophage infiltration at 2d with a rapid disappearance of this infiltrate by 7d. Conclusion: We suggest that this early and eccentric macrophage infiltration could play an important role in the pathogenesis of AVF non-maturation. © 2013 Wichtig Editore.