Purpose: A patient-specific dose-escalation scheme using a Bayesian model of Escalation with Overdose Control (EWOC) was conducted to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of PNU-214936 in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PNU-214936 is a murine Fab fragment of the monoclonal antibody 5T4 fused to a mutated superantigen staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA). Patients and Methods: Seventy-eight patients with NSCLC were treated with an individualized dose of PNU-214936 calculated using EWOC, based on their anti-SEA antibody level, and given as a 3-hour infusion on 4 consecutive days. Results: Fever (82%; grade 3 to 4, 2.6%) and hypotension (57%; grade 3 to 4, 9%) were the most common toxicities. Eight dose-limiting toxicities occurred, as defined as any grade 4 toxicity occurring within the first 5 days. The MTD was defined as a function of pretreatment anti-SEA antibody level. MTD ranged from 103 ng/kg for patients with anti-SEA concentrations ≤ 10 pmol/mL, to 601 ng/kg for patients with anti-SEA concentrations of 91 to 150 pmol/mL. A minor tumor response was demonstrated in five of 66 assessable patients. Conclusion: EWOC determined phase I doses of PNU-214936 that were adjusted for patient anti-SEA antibody level, while safeguarding against overdose. Furthermore, the method permitted the construction of a dosing algorithm that would allow patients in subsequent clinical investigations to be treated with a dose of PNU-214936 that is tailored to their specific tolerance for the agent, as reflected by their pretreatment anti-SEA. © 2004 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.