Some of the most significant leaps in the history of modern civilization - the development of article in China, the steam engine, which led to the European industrial revolution, and the era of computers - have occurred when science converged with engineering. Recently, the convergence of human pluripotent stem cell technology with biomaterials and bioengineering have launched a new medical innovation: functional human engineered tissue, which promises to revolutionize the treatment of failing organs including most critically, the heart. This compendium covers recent, state-of-the-art developments in the fields of cardiovascular tissue engineering, as well as the needs and challenges associated with the clinical use of these technologies. We have not attempted to provide an exhaustive review in stem cell biology and cardiac cell therapy; many other important and influential reports are certainly merit but already been discussed in several recent reviews. Our scope is limited to the engineered tissues that have been fabricated to repair or replace components of the heart (eg, valves, vessels, contractile tissue) that have been functionally compromised by diseases or developmental abnormalities. In particular, we have focused on using an engineered myocardial tissue to mitigate deficiencies in contractile function.