This study evaluated the relationship of general and diabetes-specific conflict with diabetes self-care in adolescents with Type 1 diabetes within the context of family structure and parental employment. The study addressed (a) whether family structure and maternal employment were associated with diabetes-specific and general conflict and diabetes self-care and (b) the relationship of conflict with self-care adherence. Participants were 161 adolescents ages 11-15 years with Type 1 diabetes. Diabetes-specific family conflict, mother-adolescent general conflict, and self-care adherence were assessed. Results indicated that neither family structure nor maternal employment groups differed on any of the measures of conflict or on self-care adherence. Neither general conflict nor diabetes-specific conflict was related to self-care adherence. Caution should be exercised in drawing conclusions about the relationships of family structure, maternal employment, and conflict with self-care management of diabetes in this age group. Copyright 2005 by the Educational Publishing Foundation.