The antimitotic drug, methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAMA), was injected into newborn rats during the first four days of life. At 48 days of age, these rats weighed one-third less than controls, as did the cerebella of their brains, but the rest of their brains weighed only 7% less than those of controls. The cerebellar structure of the drug-injected rats was highly disorganized. Purkinje cells were scattered haphazardly in the granular layer instead of forming a monolayer. More foldings and short folia were found in the cerebella of drugged animals. In spite of these large morphological differences, the total amounts of norepinephrine and serotonin in the cerebella of the drugged rats were not different from those of the control rats. Behavioral effects of postnatal injection of MAMA include retarded development of the righting reflex, i.e., the drugged pups took longer time to right themselves when placed on their backs during the first nine days after birth; and secondly, MAMA reduced locomotor activity measured 45 days after birth. © 1978.