Hepatocellular carcinoma: Diagnosis, treatment algorithms, and imaging appearance after transarterial chemoembolization

Academic Article


  • Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cause of cancer-related death, with incidence increasing worldwide. Unfortu-nately, the overall prognosis for patients with HCC is poor and many patients present with advanced stages of disease that preclude curative therapies. Diagnostic and interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of patients with HCC. Diagnostic radiologists can use contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound to diagnose and stage HCC, without the need for pathologic confirmation, by following established criteria. Once staged, the interventional radiologist can treat the appropriate patients with percutaneous ablation, transarterial chemoem-bolization, or radioembolization. Follow-up imaging after these liver-directed therapies for HCC can be characterized according to various radiologic response criteria; although, enhance-ment-based criteria, such as European Association for the Study of the Liver and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, are more reflective of treatment effect in HCC. Newer imaging technologies like volumetric analysis, dual-energy CT, cone beam CT and perfusion CT may provide additional benefits for patients with HCC.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Lune PV; Abdel Aal AK; Klimkowski S; Zarzour JG; Gunn AJ
  • Start Page

  • 175
  • End Page

  • 188
  • Volume

  • 6
  • Issue

  • 2