Mitochondrial biology has become an area of intense research owing to the unique physiology of the organelle and its role in several types of cancers and other disorders. It has been found that mitochondria-encoded proteins, mitochondrial DNA and even RNA influence the functioning of the cell in more ways than were previously imagined. This may contribute to disease phenotypes which require detailed investigation and communication to the community health care providers. Additionally, this provides several novel avenues in drug designing against various cancers, neurodegenerative diseases and other metabolic disorders. The sixth annual conference of the Society for Mitochondrial Research and Medicine – India (SMRM) titled, ‘Mitochondria in Health and Disease’ was organized by Rana P. Singh at the School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India from 10th to 11th February 2017. The underlying objective of the conference was to provide a platform to discuss the recent advances in basic and translational research in mitochondrial biology and diseases. The conference aimed to translate academic research into clinical practice by providing a forum for basic researchers and clinicians to share their knowledge and build collaborations towards development of advanced therapeutic in mitochondrial diseases. To facilitate the knowledge-sharing, six major themes for the scientific sessions were (1) understanding of mitochondrial biology in disease progression, (2) advances in basic and translational mitochondrial research, (3) mitochondria in evolution and development, (4) targeting mitochondria for cancer prevention and treatment, (5) mitochondria in metabolic and neurological disorders and (6) mitochondria in stem cell and regeneration biology. This report summarizes the major outcomes of the discussions at the conference.